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{Sunday, April 24, 2005  }

.:{More on Episcopal/Pontifical Sandals}:.

Pope Leo X receiving the ceremonial sandals in the vesting rituals before the mass; the arms of Leo's family, the Medici of Florence are in the lower margin; his name is painted on the step, as is the date of the manuscript, 1520; see the whole image
Courtesy of Columbia.edu's Web Exhibit

An anonymous reader commented on the previous post from the OSV Catholic Encyclopedia with some very useful information. Furthermore, apparently the technical term is "sandals", "sandalia" or formerly "campagi".

With this to go on, I have a few more resources towards which I intend to direct you.

Would you believe that in the supplement of the Summa Theologiae, St. Thomas Aquinas makes reference to them in q. 40 art. 7, "Are the vestments of the ministers fittingly instituted by the Church?"; in it, he says --

Bishops have nine ornaments besides those which the priest has; these are the "stockings, sandals, succinctory, tunic, dalmatic, mitre, gloves, ring, and crozier," because there are nine things which they can, but priests cannot, do, namely ordain clerics, bless virgins, consecrate bishops, impose hands, dedicate churches, depose clerics, celebrate synods, consecrate chrism, bless vestments and vessels.

We may also say that the "stockings" signify his upright walk; the "sandals" which cover the feet, his contempt of earthly things; the "succinctory" which girds the stole with the alb, his love of probity; the "tunic," perseverance, for Joseph is said (Gn. 37:23) to have had a long tunic--"talaric," because it reached down to the ankles [talos], which denote the end of life; the "dalmatic," generosity in works of mercy; the "gloves," prudence in action; the "mitre," knowledge of both Testaments, for which reason it has two crests; the "crozier," his pastoral care, whereby he has to gather together the wayward (this is denoted by the curve at the head of the crozier), to uphold the weak (this is denoted by the stem of the crozier), and to spur on the laggards (this is denoted by the point at the foot of the crozier). Hence the line:

           "Gather, uphold, spur on
           The wayward, the weak, and the laggard."

The "ring" signifies the sacraments of that faith whereby the Church is espoused to Christ. For bishops are espoused to the Church in the place of Christ. Furthermore archbishops have the "pallium" in sign of their privileged power, for it signifies the golden chain which those who fought rightfully were wont to receive.

The 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia makes reference to them under the heading vestments,

...from the ninth to the thirteenth century, completed the development of the priestly vestments in Western Europe... above all, the pontifical dress received its definitive form. This was the natural result of the enormous advance in the secular importance of the bishops and of their position in public life, which occurred in the Carlovingian era. Vestments such as sandals and stockings became exclusively episcopal ornaments. New pontifical vestments were the gloves, the succinctorium, and the mitre, to which were added among the German bishops the rational, an imitation of the pallium. When Amalarius wrote his treatise, "De officiis ecclesiasticis" at the beginning of the ninth century, eleven garments were included among liturgical vestments: amice, alb, cingulum, maniple, stole, tunic, dalmatic, chasuble, sandals, pontifical stockings, and the pallium. In the time of Innocent III the liturgical vestments numbered seventeen, the fanon, that is the papal amice, not being included among these.

They are also mentioned in the bit on pontificalia, listing them as one of the common pontificals enumeratd by Pius VII in his constitution Decet Romanos, and a short mention on the practice of bestowing pontificalia to prelates of lesser rank (i.e. the Abbot of Metz in 970 as mentioned).

The chapter on the pontifical mass mentions them among the items not used in a Pontifical Requiem mass. In a regular pontifical mass of the old rite, however,

...The pope is received at the door by the cardinal-priest and the chapter, visits the Blessed Sacrament, and goes to the small throne for terce, where he receives the obedience of the cardinals, bishops, and abbots. While the psalms are being chanted, he reads the prayers of the preparation for Mass, during which his buskins and sandals are put on, and then he sings the prayer of terce. After that vestments are removed as far as the cincture, and the pope washes his hands, and puts on the subcinctorium, pectoral cross, fanon, stole, tunic, dalmatic, gloves, chasuble, pallium, mitre, and ring. He does not use the crosier or the bugia. He then gives the kiss of peace to the last three of the cardinal-priests.

Finally, there is an entire section of the Catholic Encyclopedia devoted to Episcopal sandals, noting that they are unknown in the Eastern rites. As noted, the sandals must be worn with the liturgical stockings. What's neat is that they're apparently depicted in the mosaics of San Vitale in Ravenna -- note too the shape of the pallium, the same shape now used by our present pope. Further notice that in this mosaic, while the Emperor Justin isn't wearing campagi, they are red, denoting his authority.

Making no claims for the rest of this page, if you scroll down to about halfway (or do a ctrl+f in windows Netscape an search for " campagi "), there seems to be an interesting account to the formalization of dress and a bit of history on the development.

In v.4 of The Ecclesiastical History of John of Ephasus where it says, "At Constantinople many still held to Conon for old association sake: for his house had been at the foot of the palace, and they used to go down in their court shoes and communicate in secret, and return and stand before the king without being found out", there is a footnote on the mention of the shoes --

The campagi were shoes worn only by the emperors and the chief officers of their court; and subsequently they were adopted by the pope of Rome; and George Metochita tells us that Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople, broke off communion with Rome because the pope would not let him wear 'a pair of scarlet campagi.' At the present day cardinals are also allowed to use them.

(Never let it be said that a girl's fascination with shoes is entirely useless).
posted by Lauren, 7:43 PM


If you can find a copy of The Church Visible, I bet it would have all kinds of information about the papal booties. ;-)

It's out of print and terribly expensive to buy used, but I bet that UD's library has it.
commented by Blogger Un Séminariste, 9:47 PM  

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